Spinach: growing from seeds in the open field and at home, harm and benefit, photo
Garden spinach (Latin Spinacia oleracea) is an annual herb, a species of the genus Spinach of the Amaranth family, although not so long ago it was attributed to the Marevye family. In the wild, spinach grows in Western Asia, and began to cultivate it back in Persia. Spinach was so popular in Arab countries that Muhammad ibn al-Awam's cousin called him "the general in the green."
In the middle of the 7th century, spinach came to China along the Great Silk Road, where it was called the "Persian vegetable". In Christian Europe - first in Sicily and in Spain - spinach became famous around the 13th century, but then a form of the plant was cultivated, which is now forgotten. In 15th century Italy, green spinach was eaten during Lent, and in France, the Italian Catherine de Medici introduced the fashion for serving spinach to the table. Since the middle of the 16th century, spinach of the modern type has already been grown in Europe: broad-leaved, without bitterness and with round seeds.
In the first third of the 20th century, spinach boomed in the United States and Western countries, as it was mistakenly assumed to contain an incredible amount of iron. Remember the cartoons about the sailor Popeye? However, later it turned out that iron in spinach is 10 times less: the researcher simply forgot to put a comma in the number ... The excitement around spinach gradually subsided, but nevertheless its producers erected a monument to the sailor Popeye in Texas in gratitude for the popularization of the vegetable.
In Russia, spinach began to be eaten in the middle of the 18th century, but until the end of the next century it remained a little-known "master's" vegetable served with croutons and eggs, and then spinach in Russia failed to gain wide popularity.
Currently, this crop is most in demand in China and the United States, and in America, three-quarters of the spinach crop goes on sale fresh. The consumption of spinach in the United States is almost back to mid-20th century levels. Today, young spinach, the so-called baby spinach with delicate leaves up to 5 cm long, is gaining positions on the market.
Planting and caring for spinach
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings in late March or early April, planting seedlings in open ground - in the second half of May. Sowing seeds of early varieties directly into the ground - at the end of April, after which you can sow seeds by the conveyor method every two weeks: from sowing to harvesting - 5 weeks. Late varieties can be sown until mid-August to harvest in 6-7 weeks. Before winter, spinach seeds can be sown 6-8 weeks before the first frost - in mid-October.
- Lighting: bright sunlight, partial shade and even shadow.
- The soil: drained weakly acidic loam with a pH of 6.5-7.0.
- Watering: a bucket of water is poured over each m² with a garden sprinkler or hose with a sprinkler head. In hot and dry conditions, spinach is watered three times a week.
- Top dressing: if spinach growth is slow, add nitrogen fertilizers to the soil, but if the soil was fertilized before sowing, fertilizing is unlikely to be needed.
- Reproduction: seed - seedling and seedless.
- Pests: miner flies and beetroot flies, caterpillars of gamma scoops, aphids, common beetles and babanukhi.
- Diseases: fusarium, peronosporosis, anthracnose, curl, viral mosaic, ascochitis, cercospora and ramulariasis.
- Properties: spinach is a valuable dietary product with a laxative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and tonic effect.
Read more about growing spinach below.
Spinach plant - description
What does spinach look like? Plant height from 25 to 50 cm and more. Its stems are glabrous, simple and branched. The lower basal spinach leaves are petiolate, triangular-spear-shaped, often with elongated lateral ears, or oval, oblong-ovate, entire, tied into a petiole. The upper and often the middle leaves are oblong, pointed, with a wedge-shaped base. Anther flowers with four stamens form a spike-paniculate inflorescence, and pistillate ones are found in dense glomeruli located in the leaf axils. Spinach fruits are spherical or two-horned, sometimes welded together, but, nevertheless, do not form compound fruits.
The rosettes of spinach leaves, which form at the very beginning of the growing season, are eaten.
Sowing spinach for seedlings
When to plant spinach
Growing spinach, like any other greenery, can be done in a greenhouse, at home or outdoors. You can get the earliest greens if you pre-grow spinach seedlings. To do this, in late March or early April, spinach seeds are sown in boxes, paper or plastic cups filled with a moist, loose, disinfected substrate consisting of vermicompost (1 part) and coconut fiber (2 parts). A layer of expanded clay 2-3 cm thick is placed under the substrate.
Tough-growing spinach seeds with a dense shell before sowing are poured with water for two days, changing it every 6-8 hours. Then, for disinfection, they are placed in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for several hours, after which they are dried until flowable.
Growing spinach from seeds
Sowing spinach is carried out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, then the surface is slightly compacted, the crops are covered with film or glass and kept in a warm place until shoots appear. As soon as the seeds begin to germinate, the film is removed, and the container is rearranged to the southeastern or southern windowsill - the emerging seedlings will need a lot of light. But to the heat, spinach seedlings are undemanding: they can be grown even on an unheated loggia. Another condition for the successful development of seedlings, in addition to good lighting, is the maintenance of the substrate in a slightly moist state.
Planting spinach in open ground is done when the soil warms up. After transplanting, install metal arches above the garden at a height of about 20 cm and cover the seedlings with agrofibre in case of night frosts and intense spring sun.
Growing spinach on a windowsill
How to grow spinach at home
If you want to grow spinach on a windowsill, keep in mind that the life of the bush is no more than two months: after a few cuts, the spinach releases a flower arrow, and its leaves lose the quality necessary for eating. How to grow spinach at home? When growing a crop in the spring-summer period, seedlings do not require additional lighting, but if spinach from seeds is grown in autumn or winter, it can give a good harvest only if you arrange for it daily additional lighting for 2-3 hours after sunset.
Sowing prepared spinach seeds is carried out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm in the same substrate in which spinach seedlings are grown. A layer of drainage with a height of 2-3 cm is laid under the substrate in the dishes.You can sow spinach in boxes or containers with a depth of at least 15 cm or in 1-2-liter pots, or you can grow seedlings in small cups, and at the stage of development in seedlings 2- Open 4 real leaves into a permanent dish. Crops are covered with foil until shoots appear.
Growing and caring for spinach at home is very simple. The optimum temperature for the development of spinach seedlings is from 15 to 18 ºC, watering should be regular and sufficient, especially in summer, since the drying out of the substrate provokes premature shooting. In addition, you will have to spray the spinach daily in the early morning or after sunset. As for dressings, they are not needed when sowing spinach in fertile soil. Depending on the variety, spinach greens will ripen for cutting 3-5 weeks after sowing, but after 1-2 months the bush will go to the arrow and new greens will stop growing.
Growing spinach outdoors
When to sow spinach in the ground
Since spinach is a frost-hardy plant, it can be grown outdoors, bypassing the seedling stage. For the spring harvest, spinach is sown 4-6 weeks after the last spring frost, and for the autumn harvest, 6-8 weeks before the first autumn cold. In the spring, as soon as the heat settles and the sun begins to shine for 14 hours a day, small flowers will appear on the spinach - this process is called flowering or shooting, and it makes the leaves of the plant unfit for human consumption. Therefore, many gardeners prefer to sow spinach in the fall. In the spring, at the end of April, early varieties of spinach are sown. You can sow the plant several times every 15-20 days. From sowing to the start of harvesting, no more than 5 weeks pass. Late varieties are sown until mid-August - they yield in 6-7 weeks.
You can sow spinach before winter - in mid-October. Before the onset of winter, the plant manages to form small rosettes, and in the spring, spinach left to winter in the ground will rise very early, and after a couple of weeks you can include it in your diet.
Planting spinach in the ground
Planting and caring for spinach outdoors doesn't take long and doesn't require a lot of effort. The area for the plant should be sunny, and although the plant will do well in the shade, its productivity will be lower than when grown in the sun. Spinach prefers drained, slightly acidic loamy soils with a pH of 6.5-7.0. You can adjust the acidity of the soil by introducing limestone into it: dolomite limestone is introduced into the soil that contains little magnesium, and calcite limestone is added to the soil with a high magnesium content. This is done in the fall or at least 2-3 months before sowing.
Since the soil for spinach must be rich in organic matter, alfalfa, soybean or blood meal is added to it for deep digging. Or they dig up a site with mineral fertilizers from the following calculation: 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride per 1 m². Before spring sowing, urea is introduced into the soil - 20 g per 1 m².
Spinach is sown in rows to a depth of 2 cm with row spacing of 20-30 cm, placing the seeds at a distance of 5-8 cm from each other. After planting the seeds, the surface is slightly compacted with the back of the rake, watered, covered with burlap for 3-4 days, and a plastic wrap is thrown onto the arched supports set in advance at a height of about 20 cm. Seeds germinate at 2 to 5 ºC in about 10-14 days.
When a rosette of 2-3 leaves is formed at the shoots, the spinach is thinned out - ideally, the bushes should grow at such a distance from each other that they barely touch the leaves. Caring for spinach involves regular watering, weeding, loosening the soil around the plants, and protecting the spinach from the sun with a shade net when the air temperature rises to 26 ºC.
Watering the spinach
Spinach is very moisture-loving. For watering it is best to use a hose with a sprinkler head or a garden watering can with a splitter, but remember that you can wash away fragile seedlings with a strong pressure. Garden beds consume approximately one bucket of water per square meter. In dry, sultry weather, watering is carried out at least three times a week, and in order to prevent the water from spreading, make a furrow around the perimeter of the bed. After watering, when the water is absorbed and the surface of the soil is slightly dry, loosen the soil around the plants and remove the weeds. If you see flower arrows on the spinach, break them off.
If spinach grows well in the open field, it means that the nutrients in the soil are enough for it, but if spinach grows slowly, feed it with nitrogen fertilizer: dried dried flour or blood fodder meal. Fertilizers are applied to a depth of several centimeters, after which the area is watered. In general, spinach needs additional feeding only if the area was not fertilized before sowing or planting seedlings.
What to plant after spinach
To exclude soil depletion, spinach can be grown in one area with a break of 3-4 years. According to the laws of crop rotation, roots are usually grown after vershoks, that is, after spinach, Jerusalem artichoke, rutabaga, radish, radish, daikon, katran, turnip and other tuberous or root plants can be planted.
Spinach pests and diseases
The most harmful spinach diseases are fusarium, peronosporosis, anthracnose, curl and viral mosaic. Spinach can also be affected by diseases such as ascochitis, cercospora, and ramulariasis.
Fusarium wilting, or root rot - a dangerous fungal disease affecting seedlings and young plants. In specimens affected by fusarium, the color becomes dull, they begin to lag behind in growth, their leaves lose their turgor, turn yellow, and the plants die. The process begins with the lower leaves, and when you dig up the plant, you find that its roots are rotted. You will not be able to cure spinach from fusarium, especially if the process has covered the entire plant, so the affected bushes need to be removed from the garden. As a preventive measure, you need to grow disease-resistant spinach varieties, make sure that the bushes do not grow too close to each other, regularly loosen the soil around them and remove weeds, and the seeds must be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate before sowing.
Peronosporosis, or downy mildew - a fungal disease that manifests itself as yellowish spots on the upper side of spinach leaves, while a grayish bloom forms on the lower side. Then the spots acquire a brown-brown hue, the leaves droop, wrinkle, dry out and crumble. The disease progresses in cool, damp weather. Methods of protection against peronosporosis, as well as against root rot, are mainly preventive, since when using chemicals, the toxic substances contained in them, accumulating in the leaves, will make them unsuitable for eating. Folk remedies for combating fungal diseases can come to the rescue:
- treatment of plants with a solution of 10 drops of 5% pharmaceutical iodine in 1 liter of milk, which is then mixed with 9 liters of water;
- processing of spinach with an ash solution: 2 glasses of ash are brewed with three liters of boiling water, allowed to cool, filtered through a triple layer of gauze, diluted with 10 liters of water and the spinach is treated with this solution;
- 200-300 g of onion husks are poured into 10 liters of water, brought to a boil, allowed to brew for 1-2 days, filtered and treated with plant infusion;
- 1-1.5 g of potassium permanganate is diluted in 10 liters of water and sprayed with spinach solution.
Anthracnose covers the leaves and their petioles with rounded dark spots, in the center of which there are black raised pads.
Cercosporosis also affects the leaves and stems of spinach. First, round spots with a diameter of 2-4 mm are formed on them - red-brown with an ashy middle. Then the spots grow, merge with each other, the tissue inside the spots becomes thinner, dries and spills out, leaving holes in the leaf plates.
With ascochitis spots also appear on the leaves and stems: convex, of various shapes and colors, but most often brown with a dark border. The affected tissues gradually dry out.
Ramulariasis, or leaf spot Coats spinach leaves with gray-brown spots with dark edges. With the development of the disease, the leaves die.
Mosaic viruses and cucumber mosaic can be stored in soil, on seeds and plant debris and transmitted by sucking insects. Viruses enter the plant through damaged tissues, their presence is manifested by the formation of yellow or light green stripes and stellate spots on spinach leaves, which gradually merge with each other.The leaves are deformed, stunted, dwarfed.
Curly leaves leads to thickening and uneven growth of leaf tissue, as a result of which they curl, becoming wavy and covered with swellings. Curliness is often accompanied by necrosis, spinach leaves dry up and fall off.
Curliness and mosaics are viral diseases, and there is no way to cure them - the plants must be destroyed. And fungal diseases can be fought with preventive methods and folk remedies, which we have already described to you.
There are also many insects that harm spinach. Among them are miner and beet flies, caterpillars of gamma scoops, aphids, common bears and babanukhi.
Miner fly lays eggs in the leaves of the plant, and the larvae that appeared in June eat their flesh, from which the spinach dies. You can scare off the pest by alternating rows of spinach with rows of beets, which the fly cannot tolerate. However, it is not worth sowing spinach in an area where the beets have just been harvested, as it can get sick with root rot.
Green or brown scoop caterpillar - one of the worst pests of spinach, destroying its leaves. You can fight the caterpillars by treating the bushes with tobacco or pepper infusion, as well as infusion of tomato tops. And don't forget to weed the garden regularly.
Beet fly also lays eggs on spinach leaves. Destroy it by treating the plant with a 2% Phosphamide solution.
Aphid - a sucking insect that makes punctures in young leaves of plants, sucks out the juice from them, and often infects them with viral diseases. To cope with aphids will help you treat spinach with an ash and soap solution: 200-300 g of ash should be boiled in a bucket of water for 30 minutes, then cool, strain and add 40 g of grated soap or liquid dishwashing detergent. Most likely, you will not be able to get rid of the aphids at one time, but if you spray the spinach with an ash and soap solution 4-5 times with an interval of several days, the aphids will disappear.
Medvedka - a large and dangerous pest that feeds not only on plants, but also on small insects. She can move underground, on the ground and even through the air, which greatly complicates the fight against her. And nevertheless, it must be destroyed, since not only spinach, but also other garden and garden plants can suffer from this pest. The main thing is to find in the footsteps of the bear her nest and all the passages to it, and the traces are best seen after the rain. The discovered nest must be very carefully dug out so as not to scare away the insect in it, put it in a bucket and burn it, and put a preparation to destroy the bear in each passage or pour soapy water in case the pest is not in the nest.
Babanukha Is a cabbage or horseradish leaf beetle that eats spinach leaves with pleasure. It is better to collect these bugs by hand and destroy, and after collecting it is advisable to dust the spinach with a mixture of wood ash, hot red pepper powder and dry mustard.
Types and varieties of spinach
According to the ripening times, varieties of garden spinach are divided into early, mid-ripening and late-ripening. The best early maturing varieties include the following:
- Godry - a variety that ripens for food after 2-3 weeks. It can be sown both in early spring and late autumn, both outdoors and indoors. The diameter of the rosette of the leaves of the Gaudry variety is about 23 cm;
- Gigantic - one of the most famous varieties, giving leaves after two weeks from the moment of sowing. This variety is one of the best for canning. The rosette of elongated fleshy leaves sometimes reaches 50 cm in diameter;
- Virofle - early maturing French variety, prone to early formation of a flower arrow. The rosette of oval, fleshy, tender and smooth, greenish-yellow leaves reaches a diameter of 30 cm. The plant is resistant to cold, so it can be sown in early spring;
- Stick - a high-yielding variety cultivated in our country since 1995, used both for fresh consumption and for canning. The rosette of leaves up to 19 cm long and up to 14 cm wide is half-raised and reaches a diameter of 30 cm.
Of the mid-season varieties, the following are most often grown:
- Matador - frost-resistant and moisture-loving, as well as not prone to early shooting, a productive variety of Czech selection, giving leaves as early as three weeks after sowing. The plant has a compact, semi-vertical medium-sized rosette, consisting of smooth, glossy oval gray-green leaves;
- Bloomsdelsky - a new variety of Dutch breeding, resistant to shooting, with a high rosette with a diameter of about 25 cm. Leaves of a rich dark green color, smooth, juicy and fleshy, with slightly pronounced bubbles;
- Sturdy - a high-yielding frost-resistant variety, not prone to early shooting, with a rosette about 25 cm in diameter made of semi-raised glossy obovate green leaves with weak bubbles.
Late-ripening spinach varieties include:
- Victoria - a moisture-loving and high-yielding variety that is resistant to downy mildew and shooting, giving foliage 30-35 days after sowing. This plant has a compact rosette with a diameter of 14-19 cm with dark green with a bluish tinge, strongly bubbling leaves up to 10 cm long and up to 7 cm wide;
- Spokane - a highly productive hybrid Dutch variety, resistant to flowering and recommended both for fresh consumption and for canning. It has rounded, wavy, wrinkled-vesicular dark green leaves 10-14 cm long and 6-11 cm wide, collected in a compact medium-sized rosette;
- Varangian - a variety with a raised compact rosette of large green oval medium-bubbly leaves of a slightly sour taste with medium-length petioles. The variety is suitable for making salads and soups.
In addition to those described, spinach varieties such as Round Dance, Povar, Fat-leaved, Popeye, Nikitos, Normal, Prima, Kasta, Melody, Mazurka, Virtuoso, Tarantella, Rook and hybrids Dolphin, Puma, Space, Emerald have proven themselves well.
Known in culture and the so-called New Zealand spinach, or tetragonia - an annual plant of the Aizovy family. This plant is not a relative of spinach, although the nutritional value and taste characteristics of these plants are very similar, and in some points tetragonia even surpasses spinach.
But multifoliate spinach, or jminda, or raspberry spinach is a relative of vegetable spinach and is valuable not only for tasty and healthy leaves that are added to soups and salads, but also for mulberry-like berries, from which jelly, compote and jam are cooked.
Malabrian or Ceylon spinach, or Basella from the Basell family, is a herb, liana, whose fleshy leaves are delicious both raw and cooked. A refreshing drink is obtained from the infusion of the leaves. Basella naturally grows in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and America, and in our climate it can be grown in the garden as an annual plant.
Spinach properties - harm and benefit
The healing properties of spinach
Spinach has many medicinal properties. Why is spinach good for you? What valuable substances are contained in its leaves? They include carbohydrates, proteins and fats, fiber, organic, unsaturated and saturated acids, sugars, starch, vitamins A, C, H, E, PP, K, B vitamins, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, iodine, zinc, potassium, selenium and manganese.
It is important that the vitamins C and A contained in spinach are retained even after heat treatment. And the iron in spinach is in a form that is easily absorbed by humans and prevents the formation of cellulite. Due to the fiber contained in spinach, the intestines are cleansed, which helps to get rid of excess weight. Spinach normalizes peristalsis and relieves constipation.
Spinach is recommended for diseases of the nervous system, anemia, exhaustion, diabetes mellitus, enterocolitis, gastritis, hypertension and anemia. Since the plant has a laxative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and tonic effect and is perfectly absorbed by the body, it is useful for those recovering from a serious illness, for pregnant women and children.
Spinach strengthens the heart muscle and relieves insomnia, and due to the lutein contained in the leaves, it clarifies vision, reduces fatigue and increases efficiency.
Fresh spinach juice helps cleanse the body, replenishes energy reserves, stimulates the functioning of organs - liver, intestines, kidneys. With inflammation of the gums, they rinse their mouth, and with tonsillitis - the throat. Fresh chopped spinach leaves are used externally for boils and stings of bees, wasps and other insects, and with a paste of spinach leaves cooked in olive oil, they treat eczema and burns, remove freckles and whiten the skin of the face.
Spinach is eaten fresh, boiled and baked; it is part of many complex dishes, snacks and sauces.
Spinach - contraindications
Spinach in large quantities contains oxalic acid, therefore it is contraindicated for people with problems with the urinary tract, suffering from urolithiasis, nephritis and similar diseases. Spinach is not useful for gout, diseases of the duodenum, liver, biliary tract and rheumatism.
It should be said that there is not so much oxalic acid in young leaves - it accumulates in mature leaves, so problems can be avoided by eating only young leaves of the plant, that is, the so-called baby spinach.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Amaranth
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Garden plants Amaranth (Shyritsytsy) Plants on W Leafy
Large-flowered purslane flower, double - growing from seeds, when to plant, caring for plants
Large-flowered purslane appears more and more on the balcony, grows well in pots and in the garden. Its large, very bright flowers are eye-catching and eye-catching. The garden species can be eaten. From this article you can find out what kind of purslane plant is - planting and care, photos of interesting varieties, especially growing from seeds, when to plant and what this unique flower needs.
- Brief characteristics of the plant
- Types and varieties
- Growing and care
- Choosing a landing site
- Growing conditions in pots
- Planting and growing from seeds at home
- Watering and feeding
- Pests and diseases
Turnip - growing from seeds in the open field
There are a lot of varieties of turnip in the catalogs of seed producers: Granddaughter, Zhuchka, Snow White, Geisha, White Nochka, May Yellow, etc. But the most popular variety is Petrovskaya. The flesh of the vegetable is yellow, juicy and at the same time firm. All varieties are divided into 2 categories:
- Early varieties that are sown in May, root crops ripen in two months, but are not suitable for long-term storage.
- Late varieties, which are sown in the soil no earlier than mid-July, but they can be stored for 3-4 months.
Cucumbers, potatoes, beets, and strawberries are good predecessors. When planting, remember where the root crop was planted last year. Do not plant it where all types of cabbage, radishes, radishes, rutabagas, and mustard were grown last year, as they share common diseases and pests.
Before sowing, it is better to soak the seeds for 2 hours in a phytosporin solution, then they are dried and you can start sowing them on the garden bed.
The garden bed is prepared in the fall. It is better to add organic fertilizers to the soil, as they have many advantages.
- It is an environmentally friendly fertilizer
- Have a prolonged action
- It is very difficult to overdose them.
- The harvest is tastier.
If it is not possible to purchase rotted manure, humus, you can buy autumn, Bionex, granulated chicken manure at the Gumi-Omi store.
About the assortment of strawberry spinach
Mary is not very common in Russia. There are no varieties in the State Register of Breeding Achievements, as well as the culture itself. In seed stores, you can often find bags with the names:
- Strawberry spinach, that is, without the name of the variety at all. The description says that it is a highly branching herb with a height of 50 cm. The leaves taste like spinach, and the fruits taste like blackberry-raspberry hybrids and mulberries. Such seeds without a variety name are sold by agricultural firms: Aelita, Poisk, Golden Garden, Russian vegetable garden, etc.
Strawberry spinach seeds from Aelita
Strawberry spinach seeds under its real name - jminda
Seeds of strawberry spinach Grillage under the brand name Seeds for you!
Seeds of Strawberry Sticks are sold abroad as part of educational kits for children
The incomprehensible "variety" of varieties in Russia reminds me of the story with physalis. When it was just started to grow in our region, the store sold two types: strawberry and vegetable, without varieties. Of course, everyone wanted strawberry, because it should grow tasty and sweet. In fact, no matter what bag I buy, a vegetable grows from the seeds - very productive and unpretentious, but with the fruits of a disgusting taste. Of course, no jam came out of it, and it was impossible to eat raw. Time has passed, and today it is really possible to buy, indeed, strawberry physalis, and even different varieties: Raisin, Ananansny, Confectioner, etc. However, gardeners still complain about the misclassification: vegetable one still comes across, instead of strawberry. So it is with strawberry spinach. I think if you are interested: you have to dare, buy, try. Perhaps one day this culture in our country will be clearly divided into varieties, and their descriptions will appear in the State Register, but for now, the purchase of seeds of this plant remains a lottery. Probably, hence the different reviews: some grow tall bushes with sweet berries, others - low ones with tasteless.
Optimal growing conditions
Having decided on the variety, you are determined to plant spinach on the windowsill. Growing from spinach seeds at home requires special conditions. If the lighting rules and temperature conditions are not followed, the plant may begin to release arrows - such is its feature. In this case, the greens will become tough and tasteless, and it will be impossible to eat them.
Spinach greens on the windowsill need sufficient lighting, so it is better to place them on southern windows. If the sunlight is still not enough, it is advisable to place fluorescent lamps, phytolamps or other lighting devices nearby. If this is not done, the plant can stretch out without forming rosettes. However, it should not be overly illuminated either. Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight can lead to burning of delicate leaves. Better to practice a sensible approach: in winter - additional light, in summer - shade. The total daylight hours for plants per day should be at least 10 hours.
Spinach from seeds on a windowsill can germinate even when +4˚C. However, for further full-fledged growth and development, it needs more heat (about + 14-22 ° C). The ideal temperature is + 15˚С... It is noted that with it the plant grows faster, it turns out to be stronger and more optimal in size. At the same time, the leaves retain their green color for a long time and do not fade. Exceeding the temperature limit can lead to stretching of spinach and arrowing, a strong decrease - to a slow or even complete lack of growth - this must be taken into account.
How to grow thyme on a windowsill
Spice lovers can also grow thyme on their windowsill. Since the plant is short and has a shallow root system, it does not take up much space.For growth, a small flower pot and a sunny windowsill with good ventilation will fit perfectly (Figure 5).
So, on the bottom of the prepared pot, it is necessary to lay out the drainage in a layer of 2-3 cm. The drainage is covered with a substrate and moistened. Seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of soil (approximately 1 cm), then re-moistened.
Figure 5. Growing spices on a windowsill
Make sure the plant gets enough light and warmth at all times. Lack of lighting leads to the stretching of the plant and the loss of its specific aroma. Do not let the ambient temperature drop below 5 degrees. Till and loosen the soil regularly to shallow depths.
Harvesting is possible from the flowering period all year round, without depleting the plant with abundant cuts of leaves and stems.
The video shows in detail how to grow thyme from seeds.
Diseases and pests
Most often, spinach seedlings are affected by various diseases. The following signs of their appearance and methods of combating diseases are revealed:
- anthracnose - spots of brown or greyish-dirty shade of various sizes appear on the plant
- root rot - most often the disease affects precisely young shoots. Spots appear on the plant with fungal formation inside
- fusarium - the foliage ceases to develop normally, the color undergoes a change - it begins to darken. The lower leaves turn yellow and die off.
To combat any disease, damaged areas should be removed, but if the entire plant is completely affected, then it is better to remove it from the soil and plant new seedlings than to treat old leaves. It is important to note that the foliage in this case is no longer suitable for consumption.
In indoor conditions for growing spinach, pests cannot physically appear, but in open ground the following parasites can attack the plant:
- miner fly
- moth caterpillar (brown or green)
- beet fly
All parasites tend to lay their eggs on foliage, the caterpillars hatching from them are capable of completely destroying all the foliage of the bush.
The plant is susceptible to the most common diseases of garden crops. Of the pests, the momordica is pestered by aphids, spider mites.
Having found the defeat, the plants are pollinated with wood ash, sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur, strongly diluted with mullein infusion.
If you intend to use the fruits of mad cucumber for food, do not use chemicals. Harmful insects do not like onion and garlic infusions, decoctions of wormwood and potatoes, which are sprayed with shoots and fruits. Fight against fungus and rot with aqueous solutions of brilliant green and iodine.
If you have momordica - interior decoration and nothing more, feel free to use aggressive insecticide preparations.
Powdery mildew is more likely to affect momordica in a greenhouse. To prevent this from happening, disinfect the room before the start of the season, monitor the humidity, freeze it in winter. If the leaves turn yellow at the wrong time, feed the plant with onion infusion, spray with ash infusion.
Rotten roots will cause the plant to dry out. Dig it up and destroy it. Most diseases of Indian cucumber are the result of illiterate caring for it. Do it right and the plant will be healthy.
Now you have learned what momordica is, growing from seed, when to plant and how to care. The culture is quite unpretentious for cultivation in open, closed ground, as well as in apartments, on balconies. The process of growing seedlings and the rules for caring for adult plants are similar to the usual pumpkin and cucumber plants.
Momordica, growing from seeds at home, photo.